# Dijkstra’s algorithm in python: algorithms for beginners

Dijkstra’s algorithm can find for you the shortest path between two nodes on a graph. It’s a must-know for any programmer. There are nice gifs and history in its Wikipedia page.

In this post I’ll use the time-tested implementation from Rosetta Codechanged just a bit for being able to process weighted and unweighted graph data, also, we’ll be able to edit the graph on the fly. I’ll explain the code block by block.

## The algorithm

The algorithm is pretty simple. Dijkstra created it in 20 minutes, now you can learn to code it in the same time.

- Mark all nodes unvisited and store them.
- Set the distance to zero for our initial node and to infinity for other nodes.
- Select the unvisited node with the smallest distance, it’s current node now.
- Find unvisited neighbors for the current node and calculate their distances through the current node. Compare the newly calculated distance to the assigned and save the smaller one.
*For example, if the node A has a distance of 6, and the A-B edge has length 2, then the distance to B through A will be 6 + 2 = 8. If B was previously marked with a distance greater than 8 then change it to 8.* - Mark the current node as visited and remove it from the unvisited set.
- Stop, if the destination node has been visited (when planning a route between two specific nodes) or if the smallest distance among the unvisited nodes is infinity. If not, repeat steps 3-6.

## Python implementation

First, imports and data formats. The original implementations suggests using namedtuple for storing edge data. We’ll do exactly that, but we’ll add a default value to the cost argument. There are many ways to do that, find what suits you best.

```
from collections import deque, namedtuple
# we'll use infinity as a default distance to nodes.
inf = float('inf')
Edge = namedtuple('Edge', 'start, end, cost')
def make_edge(start, end, cost=1):
return Edge(start, end, cost)
```

Let’s initialize our data:

```
class Graph:
def __init__(self, edges):
# let's check that the data is right
wrong_edges = [i for i in edges if len(i) not in [2, 3]]
if wrong_edges:
raise ValueError('Wrong edges data: {}'.format(wrong_edges))
self.edges = [make_edge(*edge) for edge in edges]
```

Let’s find the vertices. In the original implementation the vertices are defined in the _ _ init _ _, but we’ll need them to update when edges change, so we’ll make them a property, they’ll be recounted each time we address the property. Probably not the best solution for big graphs, but for small ones it’ll go.

```
@property
def vertices(self):
return set(
# this piece of magic turns ([1,2], [3,4]) into [1, 2, 3, 4]
# the set above makes it's elements unique.
sum(
([edge.start, edge.end] for edge in self.edges), []
)
)
```

Now, let’s add adding and removing functionality.

```
def get_node_pairs(self, n1, n2, both_ends=True):
if both_ends:
node_pairs = [[n1, n2], [n2, n1]]
else:
node_pairs = [[n1, n2]]
return node_pairs
def remove_edge(self, n1, n2, both_ends=True):
node_pairs = self.get_node_pairs(n1, n2, both_ends)
edges = self.edges[:]
for edge in edges:
if [edge.start, edge.end] in node_pairs:
self.edges.remove(edge)
def add_edge(self, n1, n2, cost=1, both_ends=True):
node_pairs = self.get_node_pairs(n1, n2, both_ends)
for edge in self.edges:
if [edge.start, edge.end] in node_pairs:
return ValueError('Edge {} {} already exists'.format(n1, n2))
self.edges.append(Edge(start=n1, end=n2, cost=cost))
if both_ends:
self.edges.append(Edge(start=n2, end=n1, cost=cost))
```

Let’s find neighbors for every node:

```
@property
def neighbours(self):
neighbours = {vertex: set() for vertex in self.vertices}
for edge in self.edges:
neighbours[edge.start].add((edge.end, edge.cost))
return neighbours
```

It’s time for the algorithm! I renamed the variables so it would be easier to understand.

```
def dijkstra(self, source, dest):
assert source in self.vertices, 'Such source node doesn\'t exist'
# 1. Mark all nodes unvisited and store them.
# 2. Set the distance to zero for our initial node
# and to infinity for other nodes.
distances = {vertex: inf for vertex in self.vertices}
previous_vertices = {
vertex: None for vertex in self.vertices
}
distances[source] = 0
vertices = self.vertices.copy()
while vertices:
# 3. Select the unvisited node with the smallest distance,
# it's current node now.
current_vertex = min(
vertices, key=lambda vertex: distances[vertex])
# 6. Stop, if the smallest distance
# among the unvisited nodes is infinity.
if distances[current_vertex] == inf:
break
# 4. Find unvisited neighbors for the current node
# and calculate their distances through the current node.
for neighbour, cost in self.neighbours[current_vertex]:
alternative_route = distances[current_vertex] + cost
# Compare the newly calculated distance to the assigned
# and save the smaller one.
if alternative_route < distances[neighbour]:
distances[neighbour] = alternative_route
previous_vertices[neighbour] = current_vertex
# 5. Mark the current node as visited
# and remove it from the unvisited set.
vertices.remove(current_vertex)
path, current_vertex = deque(), dest
while previous_vertices[current_vertex] is not None:
path.appendleft(current_vertex)
current_vertex = previous_vertices[current_vertex]
if path:
path.appendleft(current_vertex)
return path
```

Let’s use it.

```
graph = Graph([
("a", "b", 7), ("a", "c", 9), ("a", "f", 14), ("b", "c", 10),
("b", "d", 15), ("c", "d", 11), ("c", "f", 2), ("d", "e", 6),
("e", "f", 9)])
print(graph.dijkstra("a", "e"))
>>> deque(['a', 'c', 'd', 'e'])
```

## The whole code from above:

```
from collections import deque, namedtuple
# we'll use infinity as a default distance to nodes.
inf = float('inf')
Edge = namedtuple('Edge', 'start, end, cost')
def make_edge(start, end, cost=1):
return Edge(start, end, cost)
class Graph:
def __init__(self, edges):
# let's check that the data is right
wrong_edges = [i for i in edges if len(i) not in [2, 3]]
if wrong_edges:
raise ValueError('Wrong edges data: {}'.format(wrong_edges))
self.edges = [make_edge(*edge) for edge in edges]
@property
def vertices(self):
return set(
sum(
([edge.start, edge.end] for edge in self.edges), []
)
)
def get_node_pairs(self, n1, n2, both_ends=True):
if both_ends:
node_pairs = [[n1, n2], [n2, n1]]
else:
node_pairs = [[n1, n2]]
return node_pairs
def remove_edge(self, n1, n2, both_ends=True):
node_pairs = self.get_node_pairs(n1, n2, both_ends)
edges = self.edges[:]
for edge in edges:
if [edge.start, edge.end] in node_pairs:
self.edges.remove(edge)
def add_edge(self, n1, n2, cost=1, both_ends=True):
node_pairs = self.get_node_pairs(n1, n2, both_ends)
for edge in self.edges:
if [edge.start, edge.end] in node_pairs:
return ValueError('Edge {} {} already exists'.format(n1, n2))
self.edges.append(Edge(start=n1, end=n2, cost=cost))
if both_ends:
self.edges.append(Edge(start=n2, end=n1, cost=cost))
@property
def neighbours(self):
neighbours = {vertex: set() for vertex in self.vertices}
for edge in self.edges:
neighbours[edge.start].add((edge.end, edge.cost))
return neighbours
def dijkstra(self, source, dest):
assert source in self.vertices, 'Such source node doesn\'t exist'
distances = {vertex: inf for vertex in self.vertices}
previous_vertices = {
vertex: None for vertex in self.vertices
}
distances[source] = 0
vertices = self.vertices.copy()
while vertices:
current_vertex = min(
vertices, key=lambda vertex: distances[vertex])
vertices.remove(current_vertex)
if distances[current_vertex] == inf:
break
for neighbour, cost in self.neighbours[current_vertex]:
alternative_route = distances[current_vertex] + cost
if alternative_route < distances[neighbour]:
distances[neighbour] = alternative_route
previous_vertices[neighbour] = current_vertex
path, current_vertex = deque(), dest
while previous_vertices[current_vertex] is not None:
path.appendleft(current_vertex)
current_vertex = previous_vertices[current_vertex]
if path:
path.appendleft(current_vertex)
return path
graph = Graph([
("a", "b", 7), ("a", "c", 9), ("a", "f", 14), ("b", "c", 10),
("b", "d", 15), ("c", "d", 11), ("c", "f", 2), ("d", "e", 6),
("e", "f", 9)])
print(graph.dijkstra("a", "e"))
```

P.S. For those of us who, like me, read more books about the Witcher than about algorithms, it’s Edsger Dijkstra, not Sigismund.

Source: dev