How to use httpx, a web client for Python

How to use httpx, a web client for Python

Originally posted on opensource.

The httpx package for Python is an excellent and flexible module for interacting with HTTP.

The httpx package for Python is a sophisticated web client. Once you install it, you can use it to get data from websites. As usual, the easiest way to install it is with the pip utility:

python -m pip install httpx --user

To use it, import it into a Python script, and then use the .get function to fetch data from a web address:

import httpx
result = httpx.get(“https://httpbin.org/get?hello=world”)
result.json()[“args”]

Here’s the output from that simple script:

    {'hello''world'}

HTTP response

By default, httpx will not raise errors on a non-200 status.

Try this code:

result = httpx.get(“https://httpbin.org/status/404”)
result

The result:

    <Response [404 NOT FOUND]>

It’s possible to raise a response explicitly. Add this exception handler:

try:
result.raise_for_status()
except Exception as exc:
print(“woops”, exc)

Here’s the result:

    woops Client error ‘404 NOT FOUND’ for url ‘https://httpbin.org/status/404’
For more information check: https://httpstatuses.com/404

Custom client

It is worthwhile to use a custom client for anything but the simplest script. Aside from nice performance improvements, such as connection pooling, this is a good place to configure the client.

For example, you can set a custom base URL:

client = httpx.Client(base_url=“https://httpbin.org”)
result = client.get(“/get?source=custom-client”)
result.json()[“args”]

Sample output:

    {'source': 'custom-client'}

This is useful for a typical scenario where you use the client to talk to a specific server. For example, using both base_url and auth, you can build a nice abstraction for an authenticated client:

client = httpx.Client(
base_url=“https://httpbin.org”,
auth=(“good_person”, “secret_password”),
)
result = client.get(“/basic-auth/good_person/secret_password”)
result.json()

Output:

    {'authenticated': True, 'user': 'good_person'}

One of the nicer things you can use this for is constructing the client at a top-level “main” function and then passing it around. This lets other functions use the client and lets them get unit-tested with a client connected to a local WSGI app.

def get_user_name(client):
result = client.get(“/basic-auth/good_person/secret_password”)
return result.json()[“user”]

get_user_name(client)
‘good_person’

def application(environ, start_response):
start_response(‘200 OK’, [(‘Content-Type’, ‘application/json’)])
return [b‘{“user”: “pretty_good_person”}’]
fake_client = httpx.Client(app=application, base_url=“https://fake-server”)
get_user_name(fake_client)

Output:

    'pretty_good_person'

Try httpx

Visit python-httpx.org for more information, documentation, and tutorials. I’ve found it to be an excellent and flexible module for interacting with HTTP. Give it a try and see what it can do for you.

Source: opensource